(49), The group also published a statement on future policy: "A complete change is necessary in the policies of the government. One of the functions of the troika was to marginalise Stalin’s arch-rival, Trotsky. Sometimes he thought for many seconds before he replied, his forehead furrowed in lines of concentration, and the answers came in strangely schematized array: "firstly, secondly ... and finally. As Robert Service, the author of Stalin: A Biography (2004), has pointed out: "He demanded efficiency as well as loyalty from the gang members. Literacy schemes would be given huge state funding… Enthusiasm for the demise of political, social and cultural compromise would be cultivated. This included the full and immediate amnesty for all political prisoners and exiles; freedom of speech, press, assembly, and strikes; the abolition of all class, group and religious restrictions; the election of a Constituent Assembly by universal secret ballot; the substitution of the police by a national militia; democratic elections of officials for municipalities and townships and the retention of the military units that had taken place in the revolution that had overthrown Nicholas II. Lenin the Marxist, Lenin the leader of our fighting Social Democratic Party, is no more. (129), The journalist, Malcolm Muggeridge, discovered the existence of widespread famine in the Soviet Union in 1933. Reed Brett on Stalin's rise to power. The Allies airlifted supplies to the beleaguered Berlin and and Stalin was eventually forced to back down and allow the land and air routes to be reopened. It is suggested that they may have participated in a piece of stage play for the sake of friends or members of their families, held by the Soviet government as hostages and to be set free in exchange for this sacrifice. I mean the story in the New Testament about the labourers in the vineyard when some of them were hired in the early morning to work all day for a penny. (101), Local communist officials were given instructions to confiscate kulak property. The Congress rocked with laughter. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, Stalin took over the vanquished Hitler's anti-Semitism along with other German reparations. When this did not happen Stalin was forced to revise his policy and stated that self-determination "ought to be understood as the right of self-determination not of the bourgeoisie but of the toiling masses of a given nation." In turn, the military subordinates of the newly executed commanders became the next group of candidates for elimination and so on, like a never-ending web of destruction. Stalin's lack of smoothness, his anti-oratory, inspired trust. But it is bread that makes factory wheels go round, and the Five-Year Plan has destroyed the bread-supplier of Russia." he said. There is no other path for our country but the one it is now treading, and there is not, nor can there be, any other leadership than that which history has given us. The change would be the work of Stalin and his associates in the Kremlin. Nikolayev was immediately arrested and after being tortured by Genrikh Yagoda he signed a statement saying that Gregory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev had been the leaders of the conspiracy to assassinate Kirov. The President then proposed a toast and said, "Suppose we compromise and make it 40,000" The President looked on the whole conversation as deliberate ribbing of Churchill by Stalin. Later I wondered whether his arrival was quite as accidental as it seemed. Stalin ruled for a long time and saw to it that the waves of terror recurred from time to time, always on even greater scale than before. Stalin told him that after the Russian Revolution the capitalist countries could have crushed the Bolsheviks: "But they waited too long. These were the last two open demonstrations against the Stalinist regime. In his youth, Stalin trained for the priesthood. Bertram D. Wolfe has argued "his mother, devoutly religious and with no one to devote herself to but her sole surviving child, determined to prepare him for the priesthood." There is a tragic symbolism in the fact that the Moscow trial is ending under the fanfare announcing the entry of Hitler into Austria. Stalin had two main options open to him: he could oppose Lenin and challenge him for the leadership of the party, or he could change his mind about supporting the Provisional Government and remain loyal to Lenin. It was the case that other secretaries before him had been in a similar position in the party but had no serious claims to power, acting in a merely technical manner. While the conference was taking place, the British General Election results were announced. It would have been even easier to establish the falseness of many other materials produced by the NKVD, but neither Stalin nor his closest aides checked or wanted to check the authenticity of these materials." Lenin's wife, Nadezhda Krupskaya, immediately objected because she disliked the "quasi-religious" implications of this decision. (95), One of Trotsky's main supporters, Adolf Joffe, was so disillusioned by these events that he committed suicide. (25), Stalin was elected as one of the delegates of the union involved in the negotiations with the employers. (76), With the decline of Trotsky, Joseph Stalin felt strong enough to stop sharing power with Lev Kamenev and Gregory Zinoviev. He was not brilliant like Trotsky nor clever in the use of words; nor had he the humanity of Lenin, who ordered a Christmas-tree for the children on the country estate where he was living in the year before he died. Those farmers who expanded the size of their farms became known as kulaks. It has been argued: "This manifesto of the Union of Marxist-Leninists was a multifaceted, direct, and trenchant critique of virtually all of Stalin's policies, his methods of rule, and his personality. It is clear that heroic measures will be necessary to stop this movement, if it can be stopped at all. It is claimed that five of these men were actually NKVD plants, whose confessional testimony was expected to solidify the state's case. Eventually, they might be in a position to overthrow communism and the restoration of capitalism. This was also true of civilians. (162), Yuri Piatakov accepted the post of chief witness "with all my heart." This was especially true during the period following the 17th Party Congress, when many prominent Party leaders and rank-and-file Party workers, honest and dedicated to the cause of communism, fell victim to Stalin's despotism. When territory was taken by the German Army, women, children and old men went into hiding and formed guerrilla units. Overview. My pulse, I am sure, was high. This put Zinoviev and Kamenev in an awkward position. We would be glad to hear the explanation." (150), As usual, that summer Kirov and Stalin went on holiday together. Stalin realized that war with Germany was inevitable. He promised to fill the most urgently needed Soviet requests, provided the British approved and they could be shipped to reach the front before October 1 and the onset of winter. Stalin’s rule is widely known for its political repression, its purges of potential rivals and brutal treatment of civilians. The following year, 1924, marks the beginning of Stalin's rise to power. On the Officials got through directly to Stalin. We've hardly had any personnel.... and so I've needed to do the work of three individuals... Our situation is as followers. The Congress also announced the removal of another 75 oppositionists, including Lev Kamenev. Voroshilov's vitality seemed effervescent against the immense, highly disciplined power in reserve which characterized Stalin. Poor Gareth Jones must have been the most surprised human being alive when the facts he so painstakingly garnered from our mouths were snowed under by our denials." The enormous land was covered with a blanket of silence." When most of the Bolshevik leaders fled abroad after the abortive revolution of 1905-06, Stalin stuck it out in Russia to continue the seemingly hopeless task of organising the remnants of the Bolshevik cause under one of the most bloody and pitiless repressions in history. At Yalta, the Allies had attempted to persuade Stalin to join in the war with Japan. Country after country fell to Soviet forces. He still remained a member of the Politbureau, but for more than a year he kept aloof from all public controversy." I have had only one thought - how to earn the trust of the Central Committee and you personally, how to achieve my aim of being employed by you in the work there is to be done. (135), Eugene Lyons has argued: "Throwing down Jones was as unpleasant a chore as fell to any of us in years of juggling facts to please dictatorial regimes - but throw him down we did, unanimously and in almost identical formulas of equivocation. Stalin - Quotes From Historians. As German troops moved deeper into the Soviet Union, supply lines became longer. To me it was obvious that the reference was to Stalin; I said so to Dennis, but he could not see it that way. Russia is turning over from agriculture to industrialism. He also selected them for their individual qualities. Archpriest of Leninism, Stalin also promoted his own cult in the following year by having the city of Tsaritsyn renamed Stalingrad (now Volgograd). Zinaida protested that "No one will believe that. This made Leningrad and its 3.5 million population, a potential target of artillery fire. Politically things are quite ripe for the change of power. Artyom said he made "we children feel like adults and feel important". Stalin, in contrast, was a crude Georgian of peasant stock. Stalin's response to France's defeat was to send Vyacheslav Molotov to Berlin for more discussions. In the struggle to destroy Stalin's dictatorship, we must in the main rely not on the old leaders but on new forces. In the midst of the interview, someone opened the door and, noting that Stalin was occupied, was about to withdraw. Only 3,300 tractors were produced in 1929. Reiss had the advantage of having his wife and daughter with him when he decided to defect to France. (170), Most journalists covering the trial were convinced that the confessions were statements of truth. In the offices of the General Secretariat resided the more material power of management and direction." His official assignment was to organize intelligence and counter- intelligence activities and guerrilla warfare in the territory under the control of General Francisco Franco. Trotsky did not take advantage of several opportunities which wouldhave helped him to crush Stalin politically. The ending of lend-lease supplies to the Soviet Union immediately the war ended with Germany in May, 1945 and the insistence that Henry Wallace, the US Secretary of Commerce, resign after he made a speech in support of Soviet economic demands, convinced Stalin that the hostility towards the Soviet Union that had been in existence between the wars, had returned. Stalin was officially the leader of the Communist party, but to many in the Party, he was only a figurehead. Those who had been in labour camps were given permission to publish their experiences. The first Five Year Plan that was introduced in 1928, concentrated on the development of iron and steel, machine-tools, electric power and transport. (54), Soon after Stalin's appointment as General Secretary, Lenin went into hospital to have a bullet removed from his body that had been there since Dora Kaplan's assassination attempt. Whatever I may have thought about the cumulative cruelties of his regime, I could not but feel an awed respect for the sharp, single-minded, unfeeling certainty of this man's attitude. While Lenin lived and had his strength, the Party Secretariat was no more than an important cog in the machine which Lenin had created and controlled, but with Lenin weakened and dying the cog became the keystone of the Soviet arch. He demanded a more revolutionary foreign policy as well as more rapid industrial growth. In fact, the Bolsheviki are more indifferent because they are animated by fanatical conviction. (26), Joseph Stalin returned to Russia and over the next eight years he was arrested four times but each time managed to escape. "Oh, I'm sorry," he smiled apologetically. Stalin was the tactician of the triumvirate and its organizing force. Yezhov requested Georgy Malenkov but Stalin wanted to keep him in the Central Committee and sent him Lavrenty Beria instead. ..." I recalled that note he had sent me the previous year with its "Motives: (a)... and (b)... " There had been no affectation in it: that was how his mind worked. In the period of the Yezhov terror - the mass arrests came in waves of varying intensity - there must sometimes have been no more room in the jails, and to those of us still free it looked as though the highest wave had passed and the terror was abating. Before the Russian Revolution there had been 16 million farms in the country. At the same time, I myself and Zinoviev maintained constant contact with the former 'Workers' Opposition' group of Shlyapnikov and Medvedyev. It is now too late." Germany was now in a strong negotiating position and Molotov found it impossible to agree to Hitler's demands. The doctors named in the letter were arrested and after being tortured, confessed to being involved in a plot arranged by the American and British intelligence organizations. However, he did admit that the Soviet government had made some harsh decisions: "To put it brutally - you can't make an omelette without breaking eggs, and the Bolshevik leaders are just as indifferent to the casualties that may be involved in their drive toward socialism as any General during the World War who ordered a costly attack in order to show his superiors that he and his division possessed the proper soldierly spirit. In subsequent weeks Roosevelt took a number of steps to implement the offer. Stalin never once spoke impetuously, never once resorted to mere cleverness or evasion. Were against the Secretariat, by actually combining politics and organisation, standing above the political body… Personally I suggest that our General Secretary is not the kind of figure who can unite the old Bolshevik high command around him. The Jews were always the first to be executed, but other groups, especially the Russians, were also killed. He spoke almost faultless German and wrote the language like a second tongue. Trepper's theory is that the "chiefs of Nazi counter-espionage" took "advantage of the paranoia raging in the Soviet Union," by supplying information that led to Stalin executing his top military leaders. Karl Radek and Grigori Sokolnikov were sentenced to ten years. Stalin used this office to build personal support. "I don't want in any way to interfere with what you may write," Stalin said, "but I would be interested to see what you make of this interview. 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