[94], Between 1960 and 1971, the Department of Defense funded non-consensual whole body radiation experiments on mostly poor and black cancer patients, who were not told what was being done to them. [13] Stanley believed that his experiments would rejuvenate old men, control crime (which he believed had biological causes), and prevent the "unfit" from reproducing. [46], Also in 1950, Dr. Joseph Stokes of the University of Pennsylvania deliberately infected 200 female prisoners with viral hepatitis. In a 1975 Pentagon Inspector General's report, the military maintained that Operation Top Hat was not subject to the guidelines requiring approval because it was a line of duty exercise in the Chemical Corps. [17][54] Subsequent investigation led to a report by Andrew Conway Ivy, who testified that the research was "an example of human experiments which were ideal because of their conformity with the highest ethical standards of human experimentation". [135] Cameron also induced insulin comas in his subjects by giving them large injections of insulin, twice a day, for up to two months at a time. In 1975, the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) created regulations which included the recommendations laid out in the NIH's 1966 Policies for the Protection of Human Subjects. From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision, Leadership Performance Beyond Expectations, Ethical Leadership: A Social Learning Perspective for Construct Development and Testing, product recalls case stude of Toyota company, Bringing Together Different Perspectives on Ethical Leadership, Ethical Integrity in Leadership and Organizational Moral Culture. [83] Nasal radium irradiation became a standard medical treatment and was used in over two and a half million Americans. The Ethics of Charismatic Leadership: Submission or Liberation? [52][56][57][58][59] The Chicago subway system was also subject to a similar experiment by the Army.[52]. [135] To achieve this, Cameron placed patients under his "care" into drug-induced comas for up to 88 days, and applied numerous high voltage electric shocks to them over the course of weeks or months, often administering up to 360 shocks per person. This suggested that the CIA researchers were, as one author put it, "a bunch of bumbling sci-fi buffoons", rather than a rational group of men who had run torture laboratories and medical experiments in major U.S. universities; they had arranged for torture, rape and psychological abuse of adults and young children, driving many of them permanently insane.[135]. [68][69], From April 10, 1945 to July 18, 1947, eighteen people were injected with plutonium as part of the Manhattan Project. [73] In 1946, six employees of a Chicago metallurgical lab were given water that was contaminated with plutonium-239 so that researchers could study how plutonium is absorbed into the digestive tract. The study was conducted by the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago in conjunction with the United States Army and the State Department. Ethical issues have become important to leadership and management practice as a result of many well known cases of failure by organizations and … [166], In 1962, researchers at the Laurel Children's Center in Maryland tested experimental acne medications on children. Terms of reference forms the basis of contractual relationship and states clearly the parameters to be measured in an evaluation undertaking by, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. [135] Cameron regularly traveled around the U.S. teaching military personnel about his techniques (hooding of prisoners for sensory deprivation, prolonged isolation, humiliation, etc. Use of consultants in evaluation brings independence and professionalism in project evaluation. a consultant. In the experiment, 399 impoverished black males who had syphilis were offered "treatment" by the researchers, who did not tell the test subjects that they had syphilis and did not give them treatment for the disease, but rather just studied them to chart the progress of the disease. According to the CBS story, over 1,400 patients died at the clinic. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, For proper evaluation, a qualified and competent consultant should be hired. Conflict of personal values and organizational goals. Two of the most well-known animal studies were conducted by Konrad Lorenz and Harry Harlow. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and bidding of the All-highest? We develop and test a new instrument to measure ethical leadership, examine the proposed connections of ethical leadership with other constructs in a nomological network, and demonstrate its predictive validity for important employee outcomes. Researchers in the United States have performed thousands of human radiation experiments to determine the effects of atomic radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, generally on people who were poor, sick, or powerless. Very soon, the left hand was extended as if in the act of taking hold of some object in front of her; the arm presently was agitated with clonic spasm; her eyes became fixed, with pupils widely dilated; lips were blue, and she frothed at the mouth; her breathing became stertorous; she lost consciousness and was violently convulsed on the left side. We propose social learning theory as a theoretical basis for understanding ethical leadership and offer a constitutive definition of the ethical leadership construct. [48] From 1963 to 1966, Saul Krugman of New York University promised the parents of mentally disabled children that their children would be enrolled into Willowbrook in exchange for signing a consent form for procedures that he claimed were "vaccinations." At Harvard University, in the late 1940s, researchers began performing experiments in which they tested diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen, on pregnant women at the Lying-In Hospital of the University of Chicago. [74], Immediately after World War II, researchers at Vanderbilt University gave 829 pregnant mothers in Tennessee what they were told were "vitamin drinks" that would improve the health of their babies. The experiments included a wide array of studies, involving things like feeding radioactive food to mentally disabled children or conscientious objectors, inserting radium rods into the noses of schoolchildren, deliberately releasing radioactive chemicals over U.S. and Canadian cities, measuring the health effects of radioactive fallout from nuclear bomb tests, injecting pregnant women and babies with radioactive chemicals, and irradiating the testicles of prison inmates, amongst other things. Both internal and external evaluations serve the purpose but in general an evaluation should have truthfulness, credibility or beauty, and justice as standards for the process. ), and how they could be used in interrogations. "[63], At the same time, the Public Health Service was instructed to tell citizens downwind from bomb tests that the increases in cancers were due to neurosis, and that women with radiation sickness, hair loss, and burned skin were suffering from "housewife syndrome".[63]. Inappropriate modelling organizational leadership, setting unrealistic and unattainable target, lack of trust within organization, support unethical act within organization and weal of legal and policies related with ethics is some factor that contribute towards unethically conducted by the organization leadership, Transformational leadership: Industrial, military and educational impact. [62], In 1953, the AEC ran several studies at the University of Iowa on the health effects of radioactive iodine in newborns and pregnant women. In 1963, the CIA had synthesized many of the findings from its psychological research into what became known as the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation handbook,[139] which cited the MKULTRA studies and other secret research programs as the scientific basis for their interrogation methods. Rous called the experiment "an abuse of power, an infringement of the rights of an individual, and not excusable because the illness which followed had implications for science. [83][84][85] Similar experiments were performed on over 7,000 U.S. Army and Navy personnel during World War II. The exact number is unknown because researchers never followed up on the status of the subjects. colluding with sellers to avoid paying taxes to state. The evaluation report should be credible, relevant and verifiable and above all acceptable to stakeholders while respecting independence of the evaluator. [176][177][178], In 1950, researchers at the Cleveland City Hospital ran experiments to study changes in cerebral blood flow: they injected people with spinal anesthesia, and inserted needles into their jugular veins and brachial arteries to extract large quantities of blood and, after massive blood loss which caused paralysis and fainting, measured their blood pressure. appear to be very successful in the eyes of the public. "[114] A 1964 issue of Medical News reported that 9 out of 10 prisoners at Holmesburg Prison were medical test subjects. The women experienced an abnormally high number of miscarriages and babies with low birth weight (LBW). [12], In 1895, New York City pediatrician Henry Heiman intentionally infected two mentally disabled boys—one four-year-old and one sixteen-year-old—with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment. dearly. be arrested, some don’t want to be embarrassed, ethically is a long term strategy for personal as well as, environment in which they act consistently. Many people in the American public were outraged when they learned of the experiments, and several congressional investigations took place, including the Church Committee and the Rockefeller Commission. "'A Little Touch of Buchenwald': America's Secret Radiation Experiments", This page was last edited on 15 February 2021, at 09:06. Multiple borrowing—a borrower obtains overlapping loans from multiple lenders—is a common phenomenon in many credit markets. Of particular interest was strontium-90 in the bones. jeopardize his job security and reputation with the company. A historical perspective". Infants were the primary focus, as they would have had a full opportunity to absorb the new contaminants. enterprises -A pilot study in the automotive industry, From 1942 to 1956, electroconvulsive treatment (ECT) was used on more than 500 children at Bellevue Hospital, including Bender's experiments; from 1956 to 1969, ECT was used at Creedmoor State Hospital Children's Service. In 1941, at the University of Michigan, virologists Thomas Francis, Jonas Salk and other researchers deliberately infected patients at several Michigan mental institutions with the influenza virus by spraying the virus into their nasal passages. Public outrage in the late 20th century over the discovery of government experiments on human subjects led to numerous congressional investigations and hearings, including the Church Committee and Rockefeller Commission, both of 1975, and the 1994 Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, among others. An evaluation process should be followed by an objective evaluation report which will facilitate accountability, lessons learnt and improvement of the project or program being evaluated. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP). 4.4.2 How to create an ethical environment, An organization built an ethical environment by undertaking, the following as suggested by Fernando (2012). At the Nuremberg trials, Nazi doctors cited the precedent of the malaria experiments as part of their defense. [88], In June 1953, the United States Army formally adopted guidelines regarding the use of human subjects in chemical, biological, or radiological testing and research, where authorization from the Secretary of the Army was now required for all research projects involving human subjects. harm to arrive at an appropriate decision. The frequent screams of the patients that echoed through the hospital did not deter Cameron or most of his associates in their attempts to depattern their subjects completely. Psychological factors, organizational and societal pressures, and a number situational factors make it difficult for people to realize their own ethical aspirations, but we must all try to be ethical in all our undertakings as individuals or corporates because there is evidence of long term personal and corporate gains. International Journal of Network Security, Corporate Governance in Manufacturing and Management with Analysis of Governance Failures at Enron and Volkswagen Corporations, Project and Program Evaluation Process, Consultancy and Terms of Reference with Challenges, Opportunities and Recommendations, The Challenges in Implementation of Ethics in Organization, Project and Program Evaluation Consultancy With Terms of Reference, Challenges, Opportunities, and Recommendations. [96][97], From 1963 to 1973, a leading endocrinologist, Dr. Carl Heller, irradiated the testicles of Oregon and Washington prisoners. Ethics and Law: Basic Concepts, Cases, and Dilemmas, Williams WR. He would then perform what he called "psychic driving" experiments on the subjects, where he would repetitively play recorded statements, such as "You are a good wife and mother and people enjoy your company", through speakers he had implanted into blacked-out football helmets that he bound to the heads of the test subjects (for sensory deprivation purposes). The evaluation report should be relevant to the project, be credible in content and verifiable. [129] The MKULTRA project was under the direct command of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb of the Technical Services Division. Such tests had dispersed radioactive contamination worldwide, and examination of human bodies could reveal how readily it was taken up and hence how much damage it caused. In another of the studies, they strapped 50 newborn babies to a circumcision board, and turned them upside down so that all of their blood rushed into their heads. Organizations should create ethical environments by providing ethical role modelling and consisted ethical decisions and save workers from ethical dilemmas. In the studies, he dosed them with LSD and bulbocapnine, and implanted electrodes into the septal area of the brain to stimulate[146] it and take electroencephalography (EEG) readings. The Research Methods Videos database contains hours of tutorials, interviews, video case studies, and mini-documentaries covering the entire research process. The personnel were not notified of the tests, and were not given any protective clothing. [49][50], In 1952, Chester M. Southam, a Sloan-Kettering Institute researcher, injected live cancer cells, known as HeLa cells, into prisoners at the Ohio State Penitentiary and cancer patients. 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